For most mothers the easiest and most efficient way to feed your baby breastmilk is usually at the breast, but there may be occasions when this is not possible and you need to express your milk.
- your baby is premature or unable to suck well
- your baby is in hospital and you can't be there for every feed
- you are in hospital and your baby can't be there for every feed
- you have returned to the paid work force, study or other commitments
- you are leaving your baby with a sitter while you are out, or
- your breasts sometimes feel too full and uncomfortable.
Some mothers like to keep a small store of breastmilk in the freezer for emergencies.
There are several techniques you can use to encourage your let-down reflex when expressing. For example:
- Consciously try to relax, using whatever method suits you. Try to express in a quiet, warm, relaxing area, away from distractions. While expressing, breathe slowly and deeply. You could express in the place you usually sit to feed. Some mothers have a warm drink first or listen to soft music. Warmth (expressing after a warm shower, warm face washers on the breast for a few minutes before starting) may also help.
- Gently massaging your breasts by stroking down towards the nipple, and gently rolling the nipple between your fingers. While you can't actually push the milk out of your breasts by massage, you can help trigger the let-down by touching your breasts.
- Thinking about your baby and how much your breastmilk is helping her will encourage your let-down reflex. If she is premature or sick in hospital,you might find it easier to express near her crib or just after you leave her. If you are away from her, looking at her photo can help.
- Having someone support you. Many mothers find they manage much better when they have an encouraging partner or friend. Your ABA breastfeeding counsellor can also give you ideas and encouragement as you learn to express.
How much you need to express depends on your reason for expressing. If it is to relieve engorgement, you may only need to express enough to feel comfortable. If you are expressing for a premature baby, you may need to express fully and frequently. Some mothers who are expressing regularly can quickly get large volumes of breastmilk from each breast every few hours. While other mothers simply cannot express big volumes at one time, and find it easier to express small amounts more frequently (eg up to 30mL every one to two hours). A few mothers find it difficult to express, although they have a good supply and their baby is thriving.
It is important not to judge overall milk production by the amount of milk you can express. The baby's technique of extracting the milk is the optimum, and he will always be able to get more milk than you; expressing is second best.
Hand expressing might not be easy when you first try it - you might feel quite discouraged if, after all your efforts, you only manage a few mL or even a few drops! Take heart, gradually you will become more familiar with the feel of your breasts and how to make the milk flow most easily. When you are able to put your baby to the breast, you will find your supply quickly increases to meet his needs.
Storage of Breastmilk for home use *
|Freshly expressed into a closed container||6–8 hrs (26ºC or lower). If refrigeration is available store milk there|
No more than 72 hours. Store in back, where it is coldest
2 weeks in freezer compartment inside refrigerator (-15°C)
3 months in freezer section of refrigerator with separate door (–18°C)
6–12 months in deep freeze (–20°C**)
|Previously frozen— thawed in refrigerator but not warmed||4 hours or less|
(ie the next feeding)
|Store in refrigerator |
|Do not refreeze|
|Thawed outside refrigerator in warm water||For completion of feeding||Hold for 4 hours or until next feeding||Do not refreeze|
|Infant has begun feeding||Only for completion of feeding, then discard||Discard||Discard|
**Chest or upright manual defrost deep freezer that is opened infrequently and maintains ideal temperature
*Reproduced with permission from National Health and Medical Research Council 2012, Infant Feeding Guidelines. NHMRC, Canberra p59.
Freshly expressed breastmilk should be cooled in the fridge before being added to other chilled or frozen expressed breastmilk.
Expressing equipment does not need to be disinfectedfor a healthy, term baby. Between expressing sessions you only need to rinse off your breastmilk using cold water, and then store the equipment in a clean, closed container (eg snaplock bag or clean plastic tub with a lid) until the next use. Once a day, wash the equipment thoroughly with detergent and hot water and rinse it well with hot water.1
See the Suggestions for using an electric breast pump article on this website for complete cleaning instructions.
For further information
Breastfeeding: expressing and storing breastmilk, is one booklet written by the Australian Breastfeeding Association that covers everything you need to know about expressing: how the milk lets down, hygiene, photos of how to hand express, discussion on how to use different types of breast pumps, what to store the milk in and for how long, and how to clean your pump and containers. Other topics are thawing breastmilk, transporting breastmilk, and cup feeding. Booklets can be purchased from the Australian Breastfeeding Association by calling 03 9885 0855 or emailing email@example.com.
1. Gilks J, Price E, Hately P, Gould D, Weaver G 2012, Pros, cons and potential risks of on-site decontamination methods used on neonatal units for articles indirectly associated with infant feeding, including breast pump collection kits and neonatal dummies. Journal of Infection Prevention 13(1):16.
Authors of this paper conclude that, even in a hospital setting:
'For breast pump collection kits and bottle brushes in repeated use by one mother, the straightforward method of carefully washing, thoroughly rinsing, drying and storing these articles in dry conditions may be more easily and efficiently carried out than the more complicated methods described above involving chemicals or production of steam. (In any case, the two latter methods should be preceded by a detergent wash and rinse). These chemical and steam methods have significant possibilities for error. It may not always be realised that certain adverse consequences (including infection or possible toxicity) may be related to the method of decontamination (Atkinson, 2001; Gilks et al, 2007; Lucas, 1977; NHS Estates/Department of Health, 1997; Price et al, 2006). Use of industrial – type dishwashers or washer-disinfectors should also be considered. With regard to detergents, the amount used should be limited to no more than is necessary for adequate cleaning and the detergent should be thoroughly rinsed off afterwards in running water.’ (p 22)
© Australian Breastfeeding Association Reviewed September 2015